The Ming Dynasty

The peasant uprisings broke out successively owing  Qiu Qiu Dana to the corrupt and degenerate rule in the late Yuan dynasty (1206-1368), and Zhu Yuanzhang established Xiwu Regime in 1364 after fighting battles across the country, directly confronting with the Ming regime, and he claimed himself emperor of a new dynasty- the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) in Yingtianfu (present Nanjing) in 1368. Zhu Di (later Emperor Chengzu) moved capital from Nanjing to Beijing in 1421 and took reforms in economy, political and culture, making the Ming empire more prosperous and stable.

To publicize national prestige and strengthen the bonds with foreign countries, Zheng He was sent to travel to the west under Emperor Chengzu’s order for seven times, and he sailed with a fleet of 62 ships to the Southeast Asian Countries, Africa and the Indian Ocean. The national power of the Ming empire declined in the Zhengde Period and was restored in the early period of Emperor Jiajing’s reign, which declined again later owing to troubles at home and aggression from abroad, including the contradictions between the emperor and the officers and the invasion from Japanese pirates. Zhang Juzheng took reforms under Emperor’s Wanli’s order in middle Ming dynasty, followed by “Wanli Resurgence” through putting down rebellions in Gansu and Guizhou and assisting Korea to fight against Japan. The capitalism rudiment appeared in the late Ming dynasty, when the Ming Empire covered an area of 150,000,000 square kilometers with Korea to the west and Tubo (present Tibet) to the east, and An’nan (present Vietnam) was a part of the Ming Empire as well.

 

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